Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Запишите свои ответы. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Hidden Threat
2. Physiological Peculiarities
3. Proper Care and Upbringing
4. A Clever Guide
5. Internal and Individual Bonds
6. Unexpected Help
7. Good Doctors
8. Long History of Friendship
A. Hardy Jones was filming dolphins near the Bahamas when a shark suddenly appeared. The shark was moving straight towards Jones, preparing to attack. Jones put his camera in front of him for protection. Then something remarkable happened. Two young dolphins swam quickly past his left shoulder towards the shark. Then two more young dolphins joined them and they all began attacking the shark. They worked as a team and finally, the shark gave up and swam away.
B. In ancient times, there were many amazing stories about dolphins coming to the rescue of sailors at sea. In ancient Greece, sailors considered it a very good omen when dolphins appeared alongside their ships. Until recently, there have not been many scientifically proven cases of dolphins’ altruism and helping humans. But we now know that Jones’s experience is certainly not an isolated example.
C. Once in New Zealand the lifeguards were swimming as part of a training exercise when a group of dolphins appeared. At first, the lifeguards were pleased to see them. But then they became puzzled as the dolphins surrounded them, forming a circle. The lifeguards felt threatened: they were trapped, unable to swim back to shore. One of the lifeguards managed to swim away. But almost immediately, he saw the great white shark.
D. Scientists are not completely sure why dolphins often protect other species. Certainly, this kind of behaviour shows that dolphins have great powers of empathy, which is a sign of imagination and intelligence. Dolphins have large brains and complex nervous systems. They are capable of learning complex tasks. They have an understanding of their own identity (they recognize themselves in a mirror) and the individual identity of other dolphins.
E. Dolphins live in groups, known as pods. These groups vary in size, depending on the species. Some are quite small, consisting of about 5 individuals. Other groups may consist of a few hundred individuals. As social animals, dolphins have developed the ability to help one another and to care for family and “friends”. Several generations of females in the same family often swim together. Male dolphins don’t stay with their mothers but they also form social groups.
F. Mother dolphins show particular care for their calves (baby dolphins). Scientists have observed how they sometimes bite their new-born calves to stimulate them to breathe. Mother dolphins also try to teach their calves to avoid danger. For example, scientists recently saw a mother dolphin near the coast of Scotland throw her young calf into the air. They believe that the mother was “punishing” the baby for having swum too far away from her.
G. Dolphins not only care for one another, they also help other sea creatures. In New Zealand two whales, a mother and a calf, were stuck on a beach at low tide. When the tide came in, the whales seemed lost and couldn’t fi nd their way to deep water. Then a dolphin appeared. This dolphin was a frequent visitor to the bay. Local people had given the dolphin the name Moko. At high tide, Moko swam towards the whales and showed them how to get out to deep water.
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