Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Запишите свои ответы. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Modern time
2. Turkish town
3. Ancient history
4. Famous writer birthplace
5. Foundation of the towns
6. Place for runaway people
7. Origin of the name
8. New capital
A. Our native land has a long and remarkable history. More than two thousand years ago the skithians lived on the banks of the river Don. There are a lot of skithian tombs there. In some of them archeologists found many beautiful priceless gold pieces of jewelry. Then this area was inhabited by the Khazars and the Polovtsians. The steppes of the Don River were called "The Wild Field". Numerous Tatar armed groups wandered there and attacked the Russian and foreign merchants.
B. Since the 14th century the vast steppe of the Don region was populated by those people who were not satisfi ed with the existing social order, by those who did not recognize the power of the landowners, by the runaway serves, by those who longed for freedom. In the course of time they turned into a united community and were called "the Cossacks".
C. The word "Cossack" is of Turkish origin and means "a white goose", this was a nickname of the Slavs. But later the word "Cossack" gained a new meaning - a free man. At fi rst the main occupation of these small armed detachments was hunting and fi shing as well as constant struggle against the Turks and the Tatars who attacked them. Only later they began to settle and work on land. The fi rst notes about the Cossack villages - "stanitsa" - dates back to 1549. The military detachments elected their leaders who were called "Atamans".
D. In the course of time not only villages but fortresses and towns appeared in the territory of our region, which occupies an area of about 100.000 square kilometers. Cherkassk was founded in 1570 and soon became an administrative, military and trade center of the Cossack army. Stepan Rasin, Kondraty Bulavin and Emelyan Pugachov lived in Cherkassk. Now in Stanitsa Starocherkasskaya you can fi nd many monuments dating back to those times, for example, unique Cossack dwelling houses, the Starocherkassky Cathedral that was built between 1706 and 1720.
E. In 1805 Novocherkassk was founded and a capital of the Don Cossacks was transformed there. This town has a rich museum of history of the Don Cossacks and many monuments of the past. Many ceremonies take place on its square where the Cathedral and a monument to Ermak are situated.
F. Azov is the oldest town of the Don region. It was founded in 1067. Originally it belonged to the Turks but then Peter I after several war campaigns joined Azov to Russia. Among its places of interest the remains of the gates built in the 14th century and the fortress wall are notable. In 1696 when the Russian army occupied Azov, Peter I decided to build a fortress on the shores of the Azov Sea.
G. The caps was called Taganiy Rog - hence the name of the town is Taganrog. At the beginning of the 20th century a monument to Peter I was erected in the town by the sculptor Antakolsky. Taganrog is proud of its famous son - the outstanding Russian write Anton Chekhov. A small house where he was born, his gymnasium and other sights became extremely popular with tourist from many countries. There are many memorial sights in the town connected with the visits of A. Pushkin, P. Chaikovsky am G. Garibaldi to Taganrog. The town also hosts a unique Gallery of the Russian masters.
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