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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, A_________, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F). The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arises mainly from the formation of glass and the mineral mullet B_________________ temperatures.
Porcelain derives its present name from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) C_____________ of the shell. Porcelain can informally be referred to as "china" or "fine china" in some English-speaking countries, D___________ making. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity;considerable strength, hardness, toughness, whiteness, translucency and resonance; and a high resistance E______________.
For the purposes of trade, the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities defines porcelain as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant." However, F____________ and has "been applied in a very unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surfacequalities in common" (Burton 1906).
1. as China was the birthplace of porcelain
2. within the fired body at these high
3. the term porcelain lacks a universal definition
4. generally including clay in the form of kaolin
5. it can be difficult to distinguish between stoneware and porcelain
6. because of its resemblance to the translucent surface
7. to chemical attack and thermal shock
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