Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Запишите свои ответы. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Tea origin
2. Tea cultivation
3. Nutrients and phytochemicals
5. Ins and outs of harvesting
6. Unfortunate economic strategy
7. Blending and additives
8. History of tea
A. The Chinese character for tea is 茶, originally written with an extra stroke as 荼 , and acquired its current form during the Tang Dynasty as used in the eighth-century treatise on tea The Classic of Tea. The word is pronounced differently in the various Chinese languages, such as chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in Wu Chinese, and ta and te in Min Chinese. One suggestion is that the different pronunciations may have arisen from the different words for tea in ancient China. Historical phonologists however argued that the cha, te and dzo all arose from the same root with a reconstructed pronunciation dra , which changed due to sound shift through the centuries.
B. Tea plants are native to East and South Asia, and probably originated around the meeting points of the lands of north Burma and southwest China. Statistical cluster analysis, chromosome number, easy hybridization, and various types of intermediate hybrids and spontaneous polyploids indicate that likely a single place of origin exists for Camellia sinensis, an area including the northern part ofBurma, and Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. Tea drinking likely began during the Shang Dynasty in China, when it was used for medicinal purposes.
C. Chinese legends attribute the invention of tea to Shennong in 2737 BC. A Chinese inventor was the first person to invent a tea shredder. The first recorded drinking of tea is in China, with the earliest records of tea consumption dating to the 10th century BC. Another early credible record of tea drinking dates to the third century AD. It was already a common drink during the Qin Dynasty and became widely popular during the Tang Dynasty, when it was spread to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
D. Tea was introduced into India by the British, in an attempt to break the Chinese monopoly on it. The British brought Chinese seeds into Northeast India, but the plants failed; they later discovered that a different variety of tea was endemic to Assam and the northeast region of India and that it was used by local tribes. Using the Chinese planting and cultivation techniques, the British launched a tea industry by offering land in Assam to any European who agreed to cultivate it for export.
E. Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Some varieties can also tolerate marine climates and are cultivated as far north as Cornwall in the United Kingdom, Perthshirein Scotland, Washington state in the United States, Vancouver Island in Canada, and experimentally in Pembrokeshire, Wales in the Northern Hemisphere. Also as far south as Hobart on the Australian island of Tasmania, and Waikato in New Zealand in the Southern Hemisphere.
F. A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 m if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are generally pruned to waist height for ease of plucking. Also, the short plants bear more new shoots which provide new and tender leaves and increase the quality of the tea. Only the top 1–2 in of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called 'flushes'. A plant will grow a new flush every seven to 15 days during the growing season. Leaves that are slow in development tend to produce better-flavoured teas.
G. Although single-estate teas are available, almost all tea in bags and most loose tea sold in the West is blended. Such teas may combine others from the same cultivation area or several different ones. The aim is to obtain consistency, better taste, higher price, or some combination of the three. Tea easily retains odors, which can cause problems in processing, transportation, and storage. This same sensitivity also allows for special processing and a wide range of scented and flavoured variants, such as bergamot, vanilla, and spearmint.
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