Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Запишите свои ответы. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
1. Smart fabrics
2. Future trends
3. Clothing maintenance
4. Purposes of clothing
5. Gender differentiation
6. First recorded use
7. Textile design
8. Clothing that provides optimal support
A. Clothing can serve as protection from weather, and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide ahygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body.
B. Knowledge of the origin of clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts, but some information has been inferred by studying lice. The body louse specifically lives in human clothing and when it diverged from head lice it can be inferred that clothing existed at that time. One study estimated that this happened between 83,000 to 170,000 years ago, another estimates between 65,000 and 149,000 years ago.
C. In the majority of societies, skirts, dresses and high-heeled shoes are usually seen as women’s clothing, while neckties are usually seen as men’s clothing. Trousers were once seen as exclusively male clothing, but are nowadays worn by both genders. Male clothes are often more practical as they can function well under a wide variety of situations, but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. It is generally acceptable for a woman to wear traditionally male clothing, while the converse is unusual.
D. The world of clothing is always changing, as new cultural influences meet technological innovations. Researchers in scientific labs have been developing prototypes for fabrics that can serve functional purposes well beyond their traditional roles, for example, clothes that can automatically adjust their temperature. Besides, they are working on creating textiles with designer bacteria that survive off of ‘dead’ skin and sweat reducing the need to wash cloths.
E. Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from early methods of pounding clothes against rocks in running streams, to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning. Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and semi-formal clothing is in this category (for example, dress shirts and suits). Ironed clothes are believed to look clean, fresh and neat.
F. The design and constructions of sportswear has changed dramatically over time. Swimwear used in competitions has even become a controversial issue because the expense and features of some of the suits can give athletes a significant advantage. Advances in safety features have also been developed including foams, synthetic and stretchable tapes, and lightweight materials with performance characteristics specially designed for various athletics pursuits have been developed.
G. An electronic textile is a type of fabric that contains electronic elements. In general, the development of electronic textiles supports the idea of wearable computing. Although the practical applications of this technology are very new, some projects involving electronic textiles and intelligent garments do exist now. Many of these are aimed at uses within the health care industry, where wearable computing elements can be used to monitor vital signs and otherwise track a person’s health in real time.
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