Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Запишите свои ответы. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
2. Establishment of trade union
3. Development of the profession
5. Business profile
6. Major social significance
7. History of bakery
8. Chocolate in the Konditorei
A. Some bakery shops provide services for special occasions such as weddings, birthday parties, anniversaries, or even business events. Bakery shops can provide a wide range of cakes designs such as sheet cakes, layer cakes, tiered cakes, and wedding cakes. Other bakeries may specialize in traditional or hand made types of bread made with locally milled flour, without flour bleaching agents or flour treatment agents, baking what is sometimes referred to as artisan bread.
B. Grocery stores and supermarkets, in many countries, now carry prepackaged or pre-sliced bread, cakes, and other pastries. They can also offer in store baking and basic cake decoration. Nonetheless, some people may still prefer to get their baked goods from a small artisan bakery, either out of tradition, for the availability of a greater variety of baked goods, or for the higher quality products characteristic of trade of baking.
C. Baked goods have been around for thousands of years. The art of baking was developed early during the Roman Empire. It was a highly famous art as Roman citizens loved baked goods and demanded for them frequently for important occasions such as feasts and weddings. Due to the fame and desire that the art of baking received, around 300 BC, baking was introduced as an occupation and respectable profession for Romans. The bakers began to prepare bread at home in an oven, using mills to grind grain into the flour for their breads.
D. Although, the oncoming demand for baked goods vigorously continued and the first bakers’ guild was established in 168 BC in Rome. This drastic appeal for baked goods promoted baking all throughout Europe and expanded into the eastern parts of Asia. Bakers started baking breads and goods at home and selling them out on the streets. This trend became common and soon, baked products were getting sold in streets of Rome, Germany, London and many more.
E. As the demand for baked breads and goods significantly creased, this resulted into a system of delivering the goods to households. This provoked the bakers to establish a place where people could purchase baked goods for themselves. Therefore, in Paris, the first open-air bakery of baked goods was developed and since then, bakeries became a common place to purchase delicious goods and get together around the world. By the colonial era, bakeries were commonly viewed as places to gather and socialize.
F. Konditorei sells pastries. Regularly they also offer a selection of different coffees and soft drinks, and many even carry beer and spirits. A Konditorei puts emphasis on the artistic aspect of the trade and, unlike a bakery, does not produce breads. The craft developed when particular bakers specialized in the creation of sweet bread to which candied fruits and other sweet ingredients were added. The origin of the word Konditor (the Konditorei’s baker) stems from the Latin word candire, which stands for "candying of fruits".
G. The profession of the Konditor developed from that of the baker. Once the bakers of medieval times mastered the art of baking bread, some started to rarefy the dough with honey, dried fruits and spices. These specialists called themselves Lebküchler. The Lebkuchen bakers ran a second trade using wax, a side product of honey: they became chandlers, supplying churches and private households with artistic candles, wax figures and pictures made of wax. The Lebküchner were turned to confectioners later and finally became Konditoreien.
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